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Located in the northeastern corner of the African continent, Egypt is a country that attracts millions of visitors every year. It borders the Red Sea from one side and the Mediterranean from the other, with the famous river Nile running through its heartland. It divides the land into two sections, the Western Desert (stretching from the river to the Libyan frontier) and the Easter Dessert (extending to the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal, and the Red Sea. The neighboring countries are Libya, Sudan, and Gaza, and it contains part of the Sahara and Libyan deserts.

Egypt is widely known for its rich history, as it was home to one of the leading civilizations of the ancient Middle East. Like Mesopotamia, it was a thriving environment for the world’s earliest literate and urban societies. Throughout its prolific history, Egypt was ruled by many dynasties, each of which has left a permanent mark on its culture and architecture, which is still visible today. 

Being one of the earliest civilizations, Egyptian history has been marked by all Pharaonic, Christian, and Islamic cultures. Due to the variety of other micro-cultures that have been and are still living in the country, Egypt has become a cultural melting pot, creating a unique blend of all that influenced its development.

Just like it has been in the past, the valley of the river Nile is still the country’s main hub for economic activity. Tourism, agriculture, and manufacturing are the most developed industry branches and the main factors affecting the country’s economy. Due to its rich cultural heritage and marvelous architectural remains, it is no wonder that so many tourists are eager to explore this extraordinary region.

With a population estimated to be more than 100 million to this day, Egypt is conveniently the most densely populated country in the whole of the Arab world. The locals today are well-known for their warmth and hospitality, so you shouldn’t be surprised if they invite you to their homes and meet with their families. Even if you need someone’s help, don’t hesitate to ask. They like to help people out and might even make some calls until they get to the answer you are looking for. 

Religion plays a very important role in the life of the locals, intertwined within the daily activities of the Christian and Muslim cultures living there. This is best seen during the holidays (Easter, Eids, Ramadan) during which time the festive spirits elevate the overall atmosphere.


Given its geographical location and predominating terrain, you won’t be surprised to discover that the climate of Egypt is mainly dry and particularly hot. The summers tend to be extremely hot and dry, while the winters are lightly humid and mild. Speaking of seasons, summertime lasts from May to September, while winter is from November to April. In terms of temperatures, they tend to change depending on the season, month, and region. In addition, the climate of Egypt is also recognizable for the significant temperature fluctuations between the day and nighttime. For example, the temperatures range between the average winter minimums of 14°C and average summer maximums of 30°C in the coastal regions. Inlands, on the other hand, witness the average summer maximums of 43°C and winter average minimums of 7°C. Another thing characteristic of this region is the hot wind storms, also known as “khamsin”. Namely, these often sweep across the northern coast of Africa and carry large amounts of sand and dust. They commonly occur between the months of March and May and can increase the temperature by up to 20°C in only a couple of hours. In terms of precipitation, you should know that Egypt receives very little rain throughout the year. The coastal areas are more fortunate to receive rainfall than the desert regions. The city of Alexandria is known to receive the highest amount of rainfall (around 200mm a year), and as the precipitation decreases southwards, Cairo receives only around 10mm.

Visa Requirements

  • A passport with at least six months of validity

  • A minimum of one blank page in your passport

  • If you apply online, you need a valid credit card

  • An active email account where you will receive your visa (when approved)

  • Visa on arrival. This is a visa for which you apply at the airport as soon as you arrive in Egypt

  • Visas on arrival are single entry visas and cost 25 USD

  • Visas on arrival are not necessary for tourists arriving to Hurgada, Sharm El Sheikh and Marsa Alam

Brief History

As we already said, Egypt has a prolific history marked by the rule of many dynasties and important events. For around 3,000 years, ancient Egypt was the most powerful civilization in the Mediterranean world. And we have many documents and records, along with grandiose architectural remains to witness the high power of the Egyptian civilization. 


And because the history dates back thousands of years, it is divided into several historical periods, each of which is characteristic of a distinct dynasty or important event. Here is a brief overview of them all:


Predynastic Period (c. 5000-3100 B.C.)


Not much is found from the predynastic period, but it is known that this is the time from the earliest human settlement to around 3100 B.C. This includes the Neolithic period (late Stone Age), marked by the people’s custom of exchanging goods in order to survive. Most archeological finds from this period were along the river Nile, as this was where the predynastic people lived and worked.


Archaic (Early Dynastic) Period (c. 3100-2686 B.C.)


This was during the reign of King Menes when he established the capital of Ancient Egypt (Memphis) in the north of the country. This city later grew into a predominating metropolis that distributed power over the whole Egyptian society.

People were mainly concerned with farming and agriculture, which formed the country’s economic base. They learned how to use the river Nile to maximize crop production and establish better living conditions.


Old Kingdom: Age of the Pyramid Builders (c. 2686-2181 B.C.)


This period is best known for building the Pyramids, the first being the Step-Pyramid at Saqqara, near Memphis. This custom peaked with the establishment of the Great Pyramid at Giza, which has remained a major tourist attraction to this day. By the end of this time, the king’s wealth started to decrease, which encouraged the growth of the nobility’s influence.


First Intermediate Period (c. 2181-2055 B.C.)


Once the old Kingdom began to collapse, Memphis-based rulers began to gain more power. This led to a civil war between the provincial governors and the invasion of the Bedouins. Lately, the land was divided into two different kingdoms, ultimately ruined at the end of this period.


Middle Kingdom: 12th Dynasty (c. 2055-1786 B.C.)


This was when a new capital south of Memphis was established. Egypt once again flourished during this time, which was made possible by Nubia’s colonization and the Bedouins’ repelling. 


Second Intermediate Period (c. 1786-1567 B.C.)


It marks a period when the country was again divided into smaller dynasties. Around 1650 B.C., a line of foreign successors took advantage of its instability and gained control over it. They ruled along with a line of native Theban rulers and eventually got into a conflict that drove the foreigners out of Egypt.


New Kingdom (c. 1567-1085 B.C.)


The New Kingdom marks this country’s most prosperous times, denoting the height of the power of Egyptian civilization. This was when religion experienced a revolution, abandoning the priesthoods dedicated to Amon-Ra. All of the rulers from this time were laid to rest in rock tombs in the Valley of Kings instead of the Pyramids. 


Third Intermediate Period (c. 1085-664 B.C.)


The Third Intermediate Period marked great changes in the Egyptian political, societal, and cultural system. The power was divided between local officials and Libya and Nubia foreigners, which led to the division of the state.


From the Late to Ptolemaic period(c.664-30 B.C.)


Egypt became part of the Persian Empire, and the country was ruled in largely the same manner as under the native kings. It was a time when the ruler supported the religious cults and invested in temple restorations.

In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great defeated the Persian armies and conquered Egypt. This marked the beginning of the Ptolemaic era, when many famous kings, including Cleopatra, ruled the country. 


Roman Egypt (30 B.C.- 641 AD)


Following the Ptolemaic period, Egypt fell under Roman rule. They significantly altered the country’s political system, also affecting other spheres during their 500-year reign. A new hierarchy was also introduced, creating remarkable divisions among the citizens regarding wealth.


Medieval Egypt (641- 1517)


This period began right after the Islamic conquest and lasted up until 1517, when Egypt became a part of the Ottoman Empire. During medieval times, Egypt was essentially a trading hub between India and the west – up until the colonial era. However, a lot of major events happened in these centuries, like the Crusades, the Mongol invasion, the fall of the Ummayad caliphate, the Fatimid caliphate, the Ayyubid dynasty and the Mamluk Empire, and the restoration of the Abbasid Caliphate which all had its mark on the Egyptian society and culture that is reflected in its architecture. During this period Egypt was considered one of the most important countries in the Middle East and played a huge role on the international arena. 


Ottoman Period (1517 – 1805)


Culture-wise, the Ottoman period was a huge decline for Egyptians. This was because it became a province of the Ottoman Empire, and the Ottomans exploited the territories for their personal imperial gain and taxation. Furthermore, it served as a military base when it came to expansion toward foreign countries. Thus, Egypt’s culture and prosperity immensely declined.


Modern Era (1804 – 1952)


The modernization of Egypt began in 1805 with the assembling of a new army to be free of Napoleon’s occupation. It began with the rule of Mohamed Ali Pasha, who set his goals to recover Egypt and build it from its ashes into a prosperous country. This period also saw the British conquest and other modern-time wars. All these historical events helped in shaping the whole of Egypt into the country it is today. 


Republican Period (1952 – now)


The 1952 Egyptian Revolution marked the beginning of a new era – the end of monarchy and the evolution into a presidential republic. Since then, Egypt has seen several crises and wars, even had a period when it merged with Syria under the name of the United Arab Republic. Among them were the Suez Crisis and War, the Six-Day War, the 1973 War with Israel (under the Sadat Era), and the Civil unrest from 2011-2014. Nowadays Egypt managed to restore peace and tourism has flourished in the past 10 years with the exception of the period of the pandemic which saw a substantial decline in the tourism industry not only in Egypt but all over the world. 


Places to visit


As Egypt's capital, Cairo has always been recognized as the city of power, history, and wonders. It is home to many of the country’s principal sites, including the great Pyramids of Giza, the Grand Egyptian Museum, and the Step Pyramid. At the heart of the city, you will find Old Cairo, which boasts ancient churches and synagogues and is filled with islamic monuments and architectural marvels from the Fatimid and Mamluk eras.


Considering the number of historical sites this city contains, it easily becomes one of the best locations to visit in Egypt. Built on the remains of the ancient country’s capital, Thebes, Luxor now has more than a third of the world’s monumental attractions. Here, you will explore the Karnak and Luxor temples, The Valley of the Kings, along with the marvelous temples of Dendera and the ruins of Abydos.


Aswan is a Nubian city recognizable for its unique landmarks and architectural discoveries. The city allows you to explore the rich Egyptian history by visiting the many tombs and temples it presents, the Nubian Museum, the unfinished Obelisk and the marvellous temple of Philae. You can also stroll down the Nile River and witness people's daily lives in the riverbank villages.


Also known as the ‘bride of the Mediterranean’, Alexandria is a city that contains many architectural marvels. Since it has witnessed several changes and building projects, it is now among the top of many tourists’ travel itineraries. Here, you can see the Pompeii Columns, the Library of Alexandria, the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa, and so much more.


If you want to visit a sub-tropical coastal city with sandy beaches and clear waters where you can enjoy the hot summer days swimming in the Red Sea, then you should visit Hurghada. Although being the oldest, this city is still the most popular tourist spot in the country. There are many things to see here, including the Hurghada Marina, Hurghada Aquarium, Sinbad’s Submarine, and Abu Nehas shipwreck sites.

Sharm El Sheikh

Located on the Sinai Peninsula, Sharm El-Sheikh is one of the leading tourist destinations in Egypt. It allows you to go on a diving adventure and explore the vibrant life of the Red Sea’s marine life, and stretch over the fine sand beaches. If you travel here, don’t forget to visit the Reef and Ras Um Sid Beach, the Ras Mohammed National Park, Sharm Old Market, and the many diving centers.


Visit the Pyramids of Giza

This is a complex of the most famous pyramids in Egypt and a must-visit location for all of you who are traveling here for the first time. You can marvel at the stoic beauty of these gigantic architectural wonders, along with the Sphinx, which acts as their guard. Daily tours are organized to visit this site, so you shouldn’t have to navigate alone to this historic place.

USD 80/Person

Dive in the Red Sea

For all the adventurous souls out there, diving in the depths of the Red Sea will give you the right adrenaline boost. The good news is that there are lessons available even for beginners so that you will get to explore submarine life for the first time here.

USD 120/Person

Sail along the Nile

The Nile, commonly referred to as the river of life, provides an ideal opportunity to spend a couple of hours exploring its banks. You can either take a romantic ride and watch the sunset or an enlightening trip to discover the life of the local village people.

USD 70/Person

Walk in Moses’ footsteps

In the Bible it is stated that Moses received his Ten Commandments on the summit of Mount Sinai on the Sinai peninsula, which made this mountain a popular religious site and a holy place. If you are up for a religious experience, you could climb the mountain – if you begin at night, then you will reach its peak right in time for the sunrise.

USD 120/Person

Visit Luxor and Karnak Temples

The east bank of the Nile River has several important historical sites, including the Luxor Temple and the Karnak Temple Complex. You can visit this site with a knowledgeable Egyptologist to gain exclusive knowledge of the history and role of these religious buildings.

USD 60/Person

Travel to Abydos and Dendera

Another pair of historically-important temple complexes are the Abydos and Dendera. Located just north of Luxor on the Nile banks, these two cities are a must-visit point for everyone keen on marveling at the temple’s intricate carvings and huge halls.

USD 150/Person

Explore an Oasis

You are probably familiar with the term desert oasis, and Egypt has more than one. Some of the most popular include the Siwa Oasis, the Bahariya Oasis, and the Fayoum Oasis – all offering spectacular village retreats to the curious traveler

USD 135/Person

Relax by the beach

Despite being predominated by a desert area, Egypt also has some of the most popular beach resorts. You can take a break from all the historical exploring and relax on some of the beaches of Sharm El-Sheikh, Hurghada, Marsa Alam or even the North Coast by the Mediterranean Sea.

Travel Tips

The best time to visit Egypt is during the cooler months of the year, ideally between November and March.

We recommend that you don’t drink tap water and ensure that you always have a bottle of water at hand before you head out from your accommodation.

Be prepared to tip the waiter and bartenders, as tips are here considered a common thing to do.

If you decide to visit religious places, women are advised to wear a headscarf and to dress modestly as a sign of respect to the place.

Top Packages


Splendor of the Pharaohs

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